The Treaty of Sèvres imposed much stricter conditions on the Ottoman Empire than those imposed on the German Empire by the Treaty of Versailles.   As early as 1915, France, Italy and Britain had begun to secretly plan the partition of the Ottoman Empire. Open negotiations lasted more than 15 months, began at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, continued at the London Conference in February 1920, and did not take shape until after the San Remo Conference in April 1920. This delay occurred because the powers did not reach an agreement, which in turn depended on the outcome of the Turkish national movement. The Treaty of Sèvres was never ratified and, after Turkey`s War of Independence, most of the signatories to the Treaty of Sèvres signed and ratified the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 and 1924. Among many agreements, there was a separate agreement with the United States, the Chester Concession. There was no general agreement among the Kurds on what the borders of Kurdistan should be because of the inequality between the areas of Kurdish colonization and the political and administrative borders of the region.  The contours of Kurdistan had been proposed in 1919 by Şerif Pasha, who represented the Kurdistan Elevation Society (Kürdistan Teali Cemiyeti) at the Paris Peace Conference. He defined the borders of the region as follows: this crucial period in Turkish history confirms a fundamental idea of international politics, namely that the facts on the ground mark peace agreements. The Turkish War of Independence changed these facts on the ground, called the Treaty of Sevres and led to peace in Lausanne.